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LED, OLED, QLED, MiniLED, MicroLED, MicroOLED, these similar but different display technologies

With the rapid development of modern mobile communication technology and wireless Internet technology, the world has entered a new “information age”, and information content is becoming increasingly rich and colorful. As an important component of the information industry, display technology has always played a very important role in the development of information technology.

Today’s display technologies are endless and diverse. Various display products are surrounding us, bringing a lot of convenience to our work and life, and also bringing a better visual experience.

1. LED

LED, or Light Emitting Diode, is a solid-state semiconductor device that can directly convert electricity into light. When the LED is subject to a forward bias voltage, electrons are injected from the N region to the P region and combine with holes to form electron-hole pairs. These electrons and holes release energy in the form of photons during the recombination process. LED has the characteristics of high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection, fast response speed, high brightness and rich colors, and is widely used in lighting, display and other fields. There are two main applications of LED display technology. One is as the backlight source of the LCD to replace the original CCFL (cold cathode fluorescent lamp), so that the LCD has the characteristics of ultra-wide color gamut, ultra-thin appearance, energy saving and environmental protection; the second is LED display screen, which uses LED directly as the display unit, can be divided into monochrome display and color display. It has the characteristics of high brightness, high definition and bright colors. It is widely used in billboards, stage backgrounds, sports venues and other occasions.


OLED is Organic Light Emitting Diode (Organic Light Emitting Diode), also known as organic electric laser display and organic light-emitting semiconductor. It is an organic semiconductor material and luminescent material that emits light through the injection and recombination of carriers under the driving of electric field. It is a kind of current. type organic light-emitting devices.

OLED is called the third generation display technology. Because it is thinner, has low energy consumption, high brightness, good luminous rate, can display pure black, and can also be bent, OLED technology has become an important factor in today’s TVs, monitors, and mobile phones. , tablets and other fields are widely used.


QLED, Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode (Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode), is a light-emitting technology based on quantum dots. The quantum dot layer is placed between the electron transport and hole transport organic material layers, and an external electric field is applied to move the electrons and holes. into the quantum dot layer, and then electrons and holes recombine to emit light. The structure of QLED is similar to that of OLED. The main difference is that the light-emitting material of QLED is inorganic quantum dot material, while OLED uses organic materials. QLED has the characteristics of active light emission, high luminous efficiency, fast response speed, adjustable spectrum, wide color gamut, etc. It is more stable and has a longer lifespan than OLED. There are two main application modes of QLED technology. One is quantum dot backlight technology based on the photoluminescence properties of quantum dots, that is, adding quantum dots to the backlight of the LCD to improve color reproduction and brightness; the other is quantum dot backlight technology. Quantum dot light-emitting diode display technology based on the electroluminescence properties of quantum dots, that is, quantum dots are sandwiched between electrodes to directly emit light, improving contrast and viewing angles. At present, QLED displays based on quantum dot backlight mode have been widely used in the market. The so-called “quantum dot TVs” on the market are basically LCD TVs equipped with quantum dot films, and their essence is still LCD technology.


4. Mini LED

Mini LED is a sub-millimeter light emitting diode (Mini Light Emitting Diode), which is an LED device with a chip size between 50-200μm. It is the result of further refinement of small-pitch LEDs.

The applications of Mini LED are mainly divided into using Mini LED chips as LCD backlight solutions and self-illuminating solutions that directly use RGB three-color LEDs, that is, backlight solutions and direct display solutions. Mini LED backlight is an important direction for LCD technology upgrades, which can improve LCD light and dark contrast and dynamic display, thereby enhancing the visual perception. Mini LED direct display can be seamlessly spliced of any size, enriching the usage scenarios of large-size screen displays. It can also greatly improve display performance such as contrast, color depth, and color detail.


5. Micro LED

Micro LED, Micro Light Emitting Diode, also known as mLED or μLED, is an LED display technology based on the micron level. It shrinks LED chips to the micron level and integrates millions of them in a display unit. The LED chip realizes image display by controlling the on and off of each LED chip. Micro LED can be said to integrate all the advantages of LCD and OLED. It has significant advantages such as high resolution, low power consumption, high brightness, high contrast, high color saturation, fast response, thin thickness, and long life. However, it is currently facing The manufacturing process is difficult and the production cost is high.

In the short term, the Micro LED market is focused on ultra-small displays. In the medium to long term, Micro LED has a wide range of applications, spanning wearable devices, large indoor display screens, head-mounted displays (HMD), head-up displays (HUD), car taillights, wireless optical communications Li-Fi, and AR /VR, projectors and other fields.


6. Micro OLED

Micro OLED, also known as silicon-based OLED, is a micro display device based on OLED technology. It uses a single crystal silicon process and has the characteristics of self-illumination, high pixel density, small size, low power consumption, high contrast and fast response speed.

The advantages of Micro OLED mainly come from the close combination of CMOS technology and OLED technology, as well as the high degree of integration of inorganic semiconductor materials and organic semiconductor materials. Unlike traditional OLED screens that use glass substrates, Micro OLEDs use monocrystalline silicon substrates, and the driver circuit is directly integrated on the substrate, reducing the overall thickness of the screen. And because it uses semiconductor technology, its pixel spacing can be on the order of several microns, thereby increasing the overall pixel density. It can be simply understood as using chip manufacturing technology to build screens.

Micro OLED and OLED are similar in principle. The biggest difference between them is “Micro”. Micro OLED means smaller pixels and is more suitable for use in small-sized, high-performance, high-definition display devices such as head-mounted displays (HMD) and electronic viewfinders (EVF).




Post time: Jan-23-2024